Veranstaltungsort : Herder-Institut für historische Ostmitteleuropaforschung
Veranstalter : Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Abteilung für Osteuropäische Geschichte, Kiel, Germany; Herder-Institut für historische Ostmitteleuropaforschung, Marburg, Germany; University of Ostrava, Department of History, Faculty of Arts, in cooperation with the Centre for the Research of Medieval Society and Culture VIVARIUM, Ostrava, Czech Republic
Datum : 05.10.2017 – 07.10.2017
There is a long history of research on the medieval crusades, their historical concepts, their course, and their social and regional range. For a long time, however, West European (and especially Ger-man) medieval studies followed conceptual approaches, which closely followed the 19th Century understanding of the classical age of the Levant crusades between 1096 and 1291, and therefore regarded the period of the crusades in a very narrow sense (cf. Jaspert/Tebruck 2016). Thereby, the phenomenon of the crusader movement is limited temporally to the High Middle Ages and, spatially, to the crusades of the French, English, Italian and German crusaders into the Holy Land and the Eastern Mediterranean. However, for contemporaries, the term crusade had a much broader range than the description of the military campaigns for the protection or rather the reconquest of Christianity’s sacred sites in the Holy Land. With the term cruciatae the Popes also legitimated armed endeavours outside of the Levant. With only a few exceptions, these latter campaigns have only received limited attention in Western studies of the crusades (Housley 2017, Murray 2014, Fonnesberg-Schmidt 2007). In recent years, however, new insights have been made into the crusading movement in Poland (Gładysz 2014).
Already during the planning of the Second Crusade 1146/47, the Saxon princes (especially Henry the Lion and Albert the Bear) could achieve a theological justification for the planed military campaigns into Slavic areas of settlement between the Elbe and Oder rivers and a comparison with the simultaneous crusade into the Holy Land by Bernard of Clairvaux. The so-called “Preußen- and Litauerfahrten” of the Teutonic Order, which enjoyed great popularity among the European nobility from the 13th century onwards (one need only think of the Prussian campaigns of the Bohemian king Ottokar II), also gained their legitimation as crusades from the Holy See. The same applied to military conflicts with the Mongols and Tatars, the Ruthenes and Muscovites or the Orthodox peoples of Southeastern Europe.
All in all, it appears that the crusade term as a legitimating concept of the bellum iustum gained cur-rency from the 11th century onwards everywhere at the peripheries of the Christian West: The Re-conquista on the Iberian peninsula, i. e. the reconquest of the once Christian territories from the Muslim Moors, as well as the theatres of war in the northeast of the European continent – the so-called “Northern Crusades” of the Danes and Swedes – were marked as crusades. As was the case with the crusades into the Levant, crusade bulls were issued by the Papacy for the campaigns against the Moors, against the Prussian, Lithuanian and Finnish pagans, against the Orthodox “schismatics” or the Monogol-Tatar infideles, and Western Christianity was called upon to take the Cross.
The planned conference seeks to take a comparative look at these peripheral phenomena and to contribute a new accentuation of the comprehension of the crusader movement to regionally-focussed research in this area. The following interests and approaches should be taken into consid-eration here:
- Which military campaigns were propagated as crusades in the peripheries of the Christian West?
- What efforts were made to gain recognition for them as crusades and what effects did these have?
- Which values did the crusader movement have for the societies at the fines christianitatis?
- What role did the cruciatae have for the strengthening of an all-Western sense of togetherness and solidarity, and what role did they have for creation of a crusader and frontier identity?
- How, in concrete terms, was the crusade rhetoric reflected in the culture, writings and language of the appropriate countries?
- Further research desiderata, which have not yet been comparatively contrasted, are the interde-pendencies, parallels as well as differences between the crusades in the peripheries of Latin Christianity.
Thursday 5th October
09.00 Welcome and Introduction
09.30 Norbert Kersken (Marburg) – German and Polish Crusaders against the Polabian Slavs
10.15 Oliver Auge (Kiel) – The Conquest of Rügen Island 1168 – a Danish Crusade?
11.00 Coffee Break
11.15 Jens E. Olesen (Greifswald) – The Swedish Crusades towards Finland from a Baltic Perspective
12.00 Christian Krötzl (Tampere) – Crusades, Mission and the Cult of Saints in the Eastern Baltic
12.45 Lunch Break
13.45 Iben Fonnesberg-Schmidt (Aalborg) – Papal Curia’s Perception of Crusading in the Baltic Region
14.30 Robert Antonin (Ostrava) – The Crusade and anti-Pagan Rhetoric in the Foreign Policy and Propaganda of the Last Přemyslids
15.15 Dalibor Janiš (Ostrava) – The Lords of Cimburg and the Crusades to Prussia in the 14th and 15th Centuries
16.00 Coffee Break
16.15 Georg Strack (Munich) – Tarragona or Jerusalem? Pope Urban II and the Target(s) of the Early Crusaders
17.00 Paul Srodecki (Kiel/Ostrava) – Andrés Dias de Escobar and the Ideological Parallels between the Iberian Reconquista and the « Reisen » of the Teutonic Order
17.45 Klaus Herbers (Erlangen) – Kreuzzug und Missionierung – Portugals Aufbruch in neue Welten im 15. Jahrhundert
18.30 Coffee Break
18.45 Key lecture, Norman Housley (Leicester) – Communication between Centre and Periphery in Fifteenth Century Crusading
Friday 6th October
09.00 Alan V. Murray (Leeds) – Chivalry and Internationalism in the Crusading Movement after 1291
09.45 Darius von Güttner-Sporzynski (Melbourne) – Was the Periphery Reluctant in Accepting the Idea of Crusade? The Case of Poland under the Piast Dynasty
10.30 Coffee Break
10.45 Andrzej Marzec (Cracow) – Infideles et perfidi schismatici. Crusades and Christianization as Political Tools in the Hands of Polish Kings in the 14th century
11.30 Sven Jaros (Leipzig) – Against Tatari, Rutheni et Litfani, hostes fidei. Role and Ambivalence of the Crusading Idea Concerning the Polish Integration of Ruthenia in the 2nd Half of the 14th Century
12.15 Adam Szweda (Toruń) – Die Kreuzzugsidee als Gegenstand der Beziehungen zwischen Polen und dem Deutschen Orden nach 1466
13.00 Lunch Break
14.00 Sergey Polekhov (Moscow) – Zwischen Kreuzzügen und Bündnissen: Die Politik des Großfürsten Witolds von Litauen (1392–1430) gegen die östlichen Nachbarn
14.45 Darius Baronas (Vilnius) – Lithuanian Participation in the Crusading Movement in the Long Fifteenth Century
15.30 Rimvydas Petrauskas (Vilnius) – Ziel- oder Ausgangsort? Das Großfürstentum Litauen als verlängerter Arm der Kreuzzugsbewegung vom Ende des 14. bis zum Beginn des 16. Jahrhunderts
16.15 Coffee Break
16.30 Nora Berend (Cambridge) – The Centrality of the Crusading Periphery: Hungarian Rhetoric about the Crusades
17.15 Attila Bárány (Debrecen) – Hungary and the “passagium particulare” after Nicopolis (1396-1437)
18.00 Mark Whelan (London) – A New Frontier for the Teutonic Order? Sigismund of Luxemburg and the Kingdom of Hungary, c.1425-1435
Saturday 7th October
09.00 Zdzisław Pentek (Poznań) – Warum kamen so wenige Kreuzfahrer in das Heilige Land aus Osteuropa?
09.45 Neven Budak (Zagreb) – Crusades in the Kingdom of Hungary, Dalmatia and Croatia – Imaginary, Abused, Failed
10.30 Emir O. Filipović (Sarajevo) – Converting Heretics into Crusaders on the Fringes of Latin Christendom: Shifting Crusading Paradigms in Medieval Bosnia
11.15 Coffee Break
11.30 Nevyan Mitev (Varna) – The Last Crusades on the Balkans from 1443-1444 or the Union between Central and Southeastern Europe against the Ottoman Invasion
12.15 Mihai-D. Grigore (Mainz) – Army Inspection and Crusade. Wallachia and Leo X’s Crusade Plans
13.00 Conference Summary
Source : H-Soz-Kult